|Contributions||Deul, M., Jeran, P.W.|
|The Physical Object|
|Number of Pages||25|
The natural vertical fracture system in bituminous coalbeds is called cleat. Cleat orientation commonly controls the direction of mining with major development paralleling the face cleat. Previous researchers have categorized the origin of cleat as endogenetic, relating the origin of cleat to compaction and coalification, and exogenetic. This publication has been cataloged as follows: 7 McCulloch, Charles M Cleat in bituminous coalbeds, by C. M. McCulloch, Maurice Deul, and P. W. Jeran. Studies of cleat orientation were carried out in underground mines that are operating in separate coalbeds vertically above one another. The data show that over a vertical separation of to feet, the average difference in coal cleat orientation between mines is 04 deg for the face and 08 deg for the butt cleat. DETERMINING CLEAT ORIENTATION OF DEEPER COALBEDS FROM OVERLYING COALS by Co Mo McCul loch, 1 So W. Lambert, 1 and Jo Ro White 1 ABSTRACT Examination of several coalbeds in Walker County, Ala., Cambria, Greene, and Fayette Counties, Pa., and Raleigh and Wyoming Counties, W. Va., indicates that cleat orientations are similar throughout a vertical sequence of strata.
Stach E, Mokowsky MT, Teichmuller M, Taylor GN, Chandra D, Teichmuller R () Stach’s text book of coal petrology. Gebruder Borntraeger, Berlin/Stutgart, pp – Google Scholar Su X, Feng Y, Chen J, Pan J () The characteristics and origins of cleat . The ‘Class C’ types (ASTM C –96 ) are produced from sub-bituminous coal (or even lignite) and can be relatively high in calcium content (> 10 per cent), whereas the ‘Class F’ types are produced from bituminous coals and are low in calcium content . Piwocki and Ziembińska-Tworzydło, , their Table 1; Widera et al., , their Fig. 4). The average thickness of the investigated MPLS-1 ranges from 6 to 12 m in the Kleczew Graben area Author: Marek Widera. 1. Introduction. Fractures occur in nearly all coal beds, and can exert fundamental control on coal stability, minability, and fluid flow. It is therefore not surprising that coal fractures have been investigated since the early days of coal mining, and that published descriptions and speculation on fracture origins date from early in the nineteenth century (Mammatt, ; Milne, ; cited Cited by:
Cleats are naturally occurring orthogonal joints in coal. They occur as two perpendicular sets of fractures. The dominant cleat is called the "face cleat." It is oriented parallel to the maximum horizontal compressive stress at the time of coalification when the cleats formed. The book is focused entirely on coals which are sub-bituminous in rank. In the coalification sequence these fall between lignite and bituminous. The book gives details of properties of such coals including calorific values and Hardgrove indices and then gives examples of their use in power generation. This item: Bituminous Coal 50lbs $ In Stock. Ships from and sold by Don Timsun. Picard Blacksmiths' hammer lb Swedish pattern of ash $ In Stock. Ships from and sold by FREE Shipping. Details/5(22). As for bituminous coal liquefaction technology, the R&D program of the NEDOL process started in Fig. shows a flow diagram of the NEDOL process (Wasaka, b; Wasaka et al., ). The NEDOL process liquefies coal by using a Fe-based catalyst and hydrotreated solvent under relatively mild reaction conditions of – °C and hydrogen pressure of 15–20 MPa.